Democracy is not something that should be taken for granted.
The Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28, 1919, at 3:50 p.m., thereby ending World War I.
The agreement, which was signed outside of Paris at the Palace of Versailles, included 440 stipulations that economically and morally decimated Germany, the war's victor.
Germany suffered significantly as a result of the Treaty of Versailles, which required it to admit its "war guilt" and pay war reparations. The wording also changed the map of Europe. Germany lost all of her colonies, as well as around 10% of its inhabitants and 15% of its territory. Germany was made to seem terrible, and the terms of the agreement outraged the German people.
Following World War I, Germany abolished the empire. The Weimar Republic was founded. It was fourteen years long. It was a time of hedonism and sexual emancipation, as well as anxiety and uncertainty.
Germany adopted the Weimar Constitution around 100 years ago, which ended the empire and officially founded the Weimar Republic as a parliamentary republic. In November 1918, following Germany's defeat in World War I, German Emperor Wilhelm II abdicated.
The new Constitution was founded on contemporary and liberal ideas such as equal rights for all people, universal suffrage and thus the right to vote for women, the eight-hour workweek, and support for the underprivileged, as well as the separation of church and state.
Neither the Constitution nor the state, however, lasted long. The Nazis ousted the government and formed a dictatorship when they took power in 1933.
For its day, the Weimar Constitution was brilliant and inventive. It was modern, progressive, founded on fundamental rights, emancipatory, and allowed women the right to vote, yet it was ineffective in preventing Hitler from gaining power.
Some historians believe that the Weimar Constitution laid the groundwork for the establishment of a federal, democratic, and socially legal state.
However, adverse circumstances for democratic growth must be addressed, such as the global economic crisis, hyperinflation, and mass unemployment.
Another historian defined the Weimar Republic as an unstable democracy marked by dread and uncertainty, but it was also a period of hedonism, sexual liberation, and artistic experimentation.
Particularly in Germany at the time, there was a considerable level of demoralisation.
Many Germans connected the Weimar Republic with the agony of World War I military losses and the humiliating peace settlement imposed on Germany by the Western Allies.
They were all united in their opposition to the new republic.
The Weimar Republic, named after the location of the inaugural assembly, was always on the verge of collapse. Many opponents of democracy, including monarchists and national socialists, battled against the newly constituted Republic.
Parliamentary democracy has been attacked by both the left and the right. The military hierarchy was conflicted about the Republic. He backed the state in theory and endured democracy with apathy.
The shock in Germany was greater than it would have been if the military defeat had been clear when the Allied demands were disclosed in early May 1919.
Germany lost 13% of its European land, including rich agricultural and industrial areas in the east, as well as around 10% of its pre-war population of 65 million people.
Economic conditions damaged Germany, but the damage was not irreversible. The political and psychological ramifications were the most devastating.
The humiliation was heightened by the compulsory requirement of demilitarisation.
The once-dominant German army was reduced to 100,000 men, and mass conscription was forbidden.
The greatest indignation was focused on the consequences of Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles.
That provision, widely known as the "war guilt clause," established that Germany and its allies were to blame for the war. Its inclusion in the Treaty of Versailles was widely advocated by
French and British public opinion, and it served as the legal foundation for Germany's duty to pay war reparations.
The responsibility of calculating compensation was assigned to the Allied Commision, which came up with a sum of 132 billion gold marks in 1923. Whatever amount was borrowed, it could be repaid in smaller sums over time without significantly damaging the German economy. The vast majority of that cash goes unpaid. There was political fallout.
According to an ugly mythology about "stabbing in the back," the German army did not win because it was sabotaged from within its own country, and the left was to blame.
"It's not surprising, then, that people prefer to escape into make-believe worlds rather than confront the frequently less rosy truth."
The true roots of the war's fiasco were concealed because no one wanted to admit them, and the imperial-German national elite was also partially to blame.
Man-made paradises, in particular, were popular throughout the Weimar Republic. Mind-altering and stupefying drugs were poured over the nascent nation.
Both before and after the war, Germany was the world's leading manufacturer and supplier of pharmaceuticals, and the production of opiates remained a German specialty. Even today, the Weimar Republic is linked with a decadent period marked by great hardship and destitution.
The rise of Hitler to power resulted in the demise of the republic. Few sympathised with her in Germany.
Unlike Germany, which lost its (although minor) extraterritorial assets as a result of the Treaty of Versailles, France and England were able to obtain natural stimulants such as coffee, tea, vanilla, pepper, and other natural medicinals from their overseas colonies. Creating on purpose, in other words.
Because the country needed incentives, the terrible war left profound scars and a variety of physical and mental afflictions. In the 1920s, drugs grew in popularity among sad individuals living between the East Sea and the Alps. And sufficient professional knowledge was available for its development.
The Weimar Republic was all about creating artificial paradises.
People would rather escape into make-believe worlds than face the often less-than-ideal truth. The true roots of the war's fiasco were concealed because no one wanted to admit them, and the imperial-German national elite was also partially to blame. Berlin was known as the Harlot of Babylon because it was home to the most wicked underworld that indulged in the most horrible vices imaginable, including intoxicants.
Berlin's nightlife has never been seen by the rest of the globe! From incredible strength to incredible perversions...
Because the world war was lost, everything is now permitted, and the city has transformed into a European centre of innovation. In 1928, 73 kilograms of morphine were dispensed with a legal prescription in Berlin pharmacies alone.
Cocaine was the most potent weapon for intensifying the present, and those who could afford it loved it.
Coca-Cola symbolised the hedonistic era by spreading everywhere.
However, both the fascists and the communists who clashed in the streets loathed it as a "degenerative poison" in equal measure.
The Nazis gave an ideological cure and their own cure to the public.
The system, which was only designed to be seduced by the Führer, no longer had room for "seductive poisons." "This fueled nationalism and provided fertile ground for Adolf Hitler's rising Nazi power, which took power in 1933 and refused to make any additional reparations."
Europe soon found itself at war again.