If you do not forget, you will never die !

As a child, I recall “people militia” or, as we call it today, “police” coming to someone’s door and politely apprehending people and taking them into custody; most of those taken into custody were returned in white sheets and left in front of the door; that is police, I recall.

However, there were several types of police that would conduct surveillance throughout the night, notably between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.

You may wonder why between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.?

Because of the time zones, the “Voice of America” radio station will broadcast the voice of freedom, and people will secretly listen.

If you see a meat truck, you know they will put you in the back and drive you around all day and night on hooks, and you will most likely end up in prison, a special prison for traitors, spies, 5th columnists known as Quislings, and others.

That being stated, let’s delve deep into a political system comparable to the one in which I grew up and worked, where I believed that all we did was for the greater benefit.

East Germany – STASI political prisons; if you don’t forget, you never die!


The former Stasi prison Hohenshonhausen is situated in the heart of an East Berlin residential neighbourhood.

It is surrounded by high-rise concrete houses and apartments, so look for it.

However, between the end of World War II and the fall of the Berlin Wall, hundreds of people were incarcerated at Hohenshonhausen prison.

Following the Russians, it was taken over by East Germany’s secret police, the Stasi.

In 1951, the East German Ministry of State Security selected Berlin-Hohenshonhausen’s Soviet subterranean jail as the chief remand facility.

In the 1950s, the communist regime held nearly 11,000 detainees at this place.


Those jailed include the leaders of the June 17, 1953 insurrection, as well as Jehovah’s Witnesses.

However, long before the Berlin Wall fell, the Ministry of State Security (MfS) captured SED party opponents in the West and brought them to Hohenshonhausen jail.

Reformist communists, fallen politicians, and even a disgraced former member of the SED Politburo endured months in tomb-like cells.

The neighbouring “X” labor camp, in the background, had over 200 cells and interrogation rooms until it was obliged to build a new jail facility in the late 1950s. Until 1989, this U-shaped edifice served as the Ministry of State Security’s major prison center.

Prisoners were primarily imprisoned here after filing petitions to depart the GDR or attempting liberation following the erection of the Berlin Wall on August 13, 1961.

This facility can house around 200 convicts.

In addition to the remand facility at its headquarters in Berlin-Lichtenberg, the Ministry of State Security (MfS) operated prisons in each of the GDR’s fifteen local government districts.

Psychological techniques for interrogating

Physical force, which was widely used in the 1950s to break down prisoner resistance, was later replaced by more refined psychological interrogation tactics.

The detainees were given the sense that they were entirely at the mercy of the all-powerful state officials, and they were never told where they were being held.

The captives were kept in strict isolation from one another and hermetically sealed from the outside world. Trained experts questioned the captives for months, attempting to elicit confessions.

Berlin-Hohenshonhausen guards and Stasi interrogators.

I’d start by asking questions that I’m personally attempting to discover answers to.

Who managed the detention, monitoring, and punishment of prisoners at Berlin-Hohenschönhausen?

What motivated and supported her for decades in the state security sector?

Stasi officers were constantly exposed to extreme human misery, which may have made them to feel sympathy, empathy, or even solidarity with the captives.

Doubt about oneself, internal criticism, or even denial are obvious answers.

The term “enemy” was purposefully unclear in order to criminalize, if required, any person who did not conform to the system and was branded a “enemy person”.

Demands for basic civil rights such as freedom of expression, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, and freedom of travel were viewed by the SED and Stasi as PID (“political-ideological diversion”), i.e. because all ideological attacks would be allegedly directed against the GDR from the outside and directly at the GDR’s socialist consciousness.

According to the MfS definition, the word PID, coined in 1958, refers to “the hostile method of dismantling the party, in order to eliminate its leading role in the construction of socialism, in order to soften the GDR and the entire socialist camp.”

Any criticism of the GDR’s social system, which the SED believed could only be inspired or controlled by the West, particularly through television and radio, had to be “preemptively prevented”.

In addition to those who disagree, there have been people who wanted to leave the country and refugees from the republic as “class enemies” since the wall was built in 1961.

Since we’re talking about the post-World War II era, how could it be that Stasi officials, some of whom had previously worked in National Socialist concentration camps, treated the captives with a harsh and nasty demeanor?

Approximately 11,000 people were incarcerated at Berlin-Hohenshonhausen’s primary remand facility throughout its nearly 40-year existence.

The Stasi often launched investigations against these detainees under specific provisions of the GDR’s political criminal code.

Almost every well-known political prisoner in the GDR was kept at this secret site.

Apart from the prison, officers from other departments were in charge of the detention center’s security and execution activities.

The two services of the MfS Main Department of the X would present an obedient prisoner whose frequently blackmailed or faked confession was used to justify harsh punishment.

They also provided uniformed guards who were expected to search convicts upon arrival, place them in their cells, monitor them closely, and transport them for questioning.

In addition to administering the Berlin-Hohenshonhausen remand prison, the two service units were in charge of prison administrations and remand departments in each of the 15 MfS district administrations, each with its own remand prison.

Erich Milke, Minister of State Security, exercised direct supervision over both services. During the Hohenschönhausen complex’s existence, the number of personnel in the Berlin-Hohenschönhausen service units increased, as did the overall MfS.

Remand personnel were primarily hired from pro-system families beginning in the late 1960s, when one or both parents worked for the Stasi, the National People’s Army (NVA), or other armed forces.

Employees developed unique personality traits through their upbringing in parental households, schools, mass groups such as the Free German Youth (FDJ), and the guard regiment, a military-operational component of the MfS.

These dispositions are essential building elements for the subsequent construction of training and control mechanisms, as well as MfS incentive structures.

These included, among other things, a strong sense of friend or foe, a dislike of the class adversary, allegiance to the GDR state, collectivism, and the belief that socialism is superior.

Beliefs and ideology

According to the State Security Service, secret service operatives’ performance was not only determined by familial and social circumstances.

The generally binding ideology, in particular, had a significant impact on workers’ day-to-day tasks, justifying their actions as necessary and proper.

They felt an internal duty to the “organ” and their state, and they were glad and gratified to be on the “front line” of protecting the socialist social order against the “enemy”.

The Stasi’s operations, like the SED’s overall control, were based on power claims that the organization’s leadership deemed both politically acceptable and intellectually legitimate.

The Stasi, as the “shield and sword” of the party, had to withstand these attacks while also defending the SED-established and controlled system.

The ideological enemy was always a major focus of the specialized courses, which were offered once a month during the year of party training and at the Stasi Faculty of Law. This was due to the Stasi’s literal survival in the GDR, as well as its constant close contact with the adversary.

Sanctions and the Hierarchy

Finally, the MfS used a range of disciplinary tactics, as well as privileges and incentive mechanisms (material, non-material, and career incentives), to either positively or negatively reinforce intrinsic motivation.

Officer discipline was mostly preventive, thanks to the Stasi’s system of strict commands and monitoring, military formations, a punishing environment, and peer pressure.

Former Stasi personnel’s tolerant demeanor is due to their fear of criminal prosecution or disciplinary action.

The aim, according to one investigator’s findings, was to “make sure the party can work in peace.”

Individuals who laughed and dismissed this tactic—which, of course, I did not believe in—would have caused military problems: disobedience to directives.

The political purpose of defending the socialist social order from the “enemy” motivated the headquarters’ operations, with strict adherence to the command structure and hierarchy following in second.

It was a former Soviet special camp – It was a banned location.

At the time, one part of the prison was off bounds.

Political captives were tortured, humiliated, and held without charge. They carried it out extremely cleverly. One could argue that they had influence over life.

Hohenschenhausen was a Soviet penitentiary known as “Special Camp 3” after WWII, housing nearly 20,000 detainees until October 1946.

Following its collapse, the special camp became the official penitentiary for the Soviet secret police.

In 1951, the Ministry of State Security took over the facility.

A second U-shaped structure was built next to the other in 1961.

Life in Prison

Karl-Heinz Richter was one of the witnesses who narrated the story.

Following his high school graduation in 1964, he decided to depart the GDR with his friends.

They found a position from where they could board the night train heading west. He assisted twelve companions in fleeing, and when he attempted to cross the border on his own, border authorities discovered him.

He bolted, leaping over a seven-meter-high wall.

Dragging himself home, he fractured his bones. When the Stasi rang the doorbell a week later, he was arrested.

He was initially refused treatment, but Erich Milke personally granted the order.

The prisoner was only allowed to visit Charite after spending several months in jail, where he underwent fifteen surgeries.

Urine-treated wounds

Richter informs the old prison wing’s basement that his first eight weeks of incarceration were not pleasant.

He applied urine to the wounds.

When Richter was freed from prison, many people suspected him of being an informant.

However, his father never lost faith in him.

Isolation, a dimly lit dungeon

Richter stated, “I was full of hate and I was young.” It was difficult to make the dark arrest.

Many inmates have gone insane in these quarters. “Your time is being squandered. You nod off and wake up, but it’s unclear whether it’s been five minutes or an hour. “You have a problem after that.”

The breakdown of the SED Party rule and the dismantling of the State Security Service were postponed until after the peaceful revolution in fall 1989.

On October 3, 1990, the German Democratic Republic became the Federal Republic of Germany, and the Berlin-Hohenschönhausen remand prison was officially closed.

Revolution’s Dynamics and Modus Operandi

It goes without saying that every revolution is presented as group thinking, with groups benefiting, entire societies flourishing, and milk and honey available for all.

However, as a child who fought and bled in the 1991 revolution, which resulted in civil war, I realised that revolutions are the product of one man’s desire and needs, perhaps a few, but that’s all.

I fought for democracy against Communism, yet all I knew was Communism, irony.

The revolution begins slowly and easily in the dark shadows of the night, in basements, and the first acts of disobedience to the government are posters on the streets, slogans, ruined public property, and gradually, people from those loud gatherings begin arming themselves, and Bob’s your uncle.

Needless to say, revolutions are far less likely to occur in Western countries than in Eastern Europe, Asia, or Africa, and why? I’ll leave the answer up to you.

So let’s get into the idea and practice of revolution, and in this essay, we’ll explain why the October Revolution isn’t what you’ve been told. This chapter of the Russian revolt began with Russia’s enemy during World War I, Germany.

Let me ask you a few easy questions before we begin.

Do you know what a revolution is?

What exactly does “revolution” mean?

What does the Revolution represent?

How does the Revolution come about?

The term Revolution is derived from the Latin word revolution, which means ‘a turnabout’.

It’s only a twist, do you agree?!

A revolution is the rapid and substantial transformation of a society’s state, social, ethnic, or religious structures.

A revolution is defined by the attempted change of political regimes, massive social mobilisation, and efforts to compel change by non-institutionalized techniques such as large demonstrations, marches, strikes, or violence.

Revolutions have occurred throughout history and continue to do so. They differ significantly in terms of tactics, success or failure, lifespan, and underlying ideology.

Revolutions can begin on the periphery, with guerilla warfare or peasant upheavals, or on the inside, with urban uprisings and regime overthrows.

Repression, corruption, and military losses can leave regimes open to revolution.

Revolutionary ideologies and forms of government, such as nationalism, self-determination, republicanism, liberalism, democracy, fascism, and socialism, can spread throughout the world system.

The Revolution can be understood in three ways: psychologically, sociologically, and politically.

  • Psychological: The general public’s displeasure with the state of society and politics is the primary driver of revolution.
  • Sociologically, society as a whole is out of balance with respect to diverse demands, resources, and subsystems (political, cultural, etc.).
  • Political conflict occurs when competing interest groups clash.

According to this paradigm, revolutions occur when two or more groups have the resources to use force to achieve their goals but are unable to reach an agreement inside the traditional decision-making process of a specific political system.

The American, Russian, Chinese, and French revolutions are among the best-known historical revolutions.

October Revolution

Russia, history, and communism: or the Bolsheviks’ rise to power.

On November 7, 1917, it was evening, and the hands struck nine o’clock.

The charge was announced with a shot from the cruiser Aurora.

Workers, sailors, and communist revolutionaries went to St. Petersburg’s Winter Palace with the goal of deposing the current administration and installing a new one that would represent them.

This marked the beginning of the October Revolution, one of the most major historical events of the twentieth century, which will bring about a slew of changes, most notably political ones, first in Russia and then throughout Europe and the world.

According to historians, the October Revolution saw an abrupt shift of power in Russia.

So, how did it all start?

9th April 1917.

There are thirty-two Russian emigrants at the Zurich station, ready to depart.

They are not the only ones who have arrived; some in the crowd cry at them, “Traitors, thieves, pigs!”

However, people who support them also sing revolutionary songs.

Despite the fact that the disturbance temporarily blocks the tracks, the train continues to go.

The German Emperor Wilhelm II provided this train with the purpose of sparking a revolution in Russia.

Lenin, also known as Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, sits in one of the carriages.

He leaves his exile in Switzerland with German support, arriving in Petrograd a week later.

The February Revolution in Russia concluded, and Tsar Nicholas II was ousted.

However, as a result of the prolonged fighting, the civil administration is unstable, the atmosphere is chaotic, people are starving, and they are unhappy.

All of this suggests that a significant upheaval could occur in a few months’ time.


Berlin pays special attention to the travels of famous Russian refugees: “Lenin was able to enter Russia.” “He is behaving exactly as we have instructed,” the German Army’s Supreme Staff wrote to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Wilhelm II, a monarch and ardent conservative, appears to be siding with communist Lenin in what appears to be a political quandary.

Germany and Austria-Hungary have been at war with the Russian Empire since 1914, and Berlin’s goal is to significantly weaken it.

As a result of Lenin and the Bolsheviks’ destabilisation of Russia, Berlin calculated that German military units might be shifted from the Eastern Front to the Western Front during World War I.

The plan was much more effective than expected when revolutionary Russia surrendered a major amount of its territory to Germany in the Brest-Litovsk Treaty.

The classic phrase “the enemy of my enemy is my friend” accurately defines the connection between the king and Lenin, but the person who proposed such an alliance is even more intriguing.

Izrail Lazarevič Heljfand, sometimes known as “Parvus” or Maleni, was a lone combatant.

This was a wealthy Russian Jew who had earlier recommended to the German envoy in Constantinople at the end of 1914 that “Russian proletarian fists and Prussian bayonets” join forces.

According to Parvus, Germany and the Russian revolutionaries share the same goals.

Initially suspicious, he later secures a Berlin appointment.

“Salon revolutionary”

Heljfand first visited Germany in 1891. He was content to live in grandeur and with the fairer sex.

Under several names, he publishes to revolutionary newspapers and contacts with the most notable revolutionaries of the day, including Karl Kautsky, Leon Trotsky, Lenin, and Rosa Luxemburg.

However, due of his “non-socialist” lifestyle, his comrades did not have much trust in him.

Heljfand and Trotsky were among the first Russian refugees to return home following “Bloody Sunday” on January 22, 1905, when the Russian Tsar ordered the shooting of protesters in Petersburg, killing over 200 people.

They both rose to prominence as Workers’ Council leaders, but the police apprehended them one after another.

Heljfand is imprisoned in Siberia but escapes and establishes himself as a businessman in Istanbul. He amasses a wealth through business and imports, eventually owning many banks.

As a result of everything, his fellow communists publicly rejected him; Trotsky even wrote a “Obituary to a Living Friend”.

However, when war broke out in 1914, “Parvus” was given another opportunity to create “great politics”. In February 1915, the German ambassador in Turkey assigned him a post in Berlin.

Without hesitation, the revolutionary established what amounted to a smuggling “business” in Constantinople, or present-day Istanbul. However, his channels were extremely helpful to the revolution.

He arrives at the Berlin Ministry of Foreign Affairs conference well-prepared, with a written “schedule” for the revolution that he eventually fills out nearly completely.

In 23 pages, he discusses Lenin’s release to Russia, the weapons and money that will be supplied to the revolutionaries, and the final fall of the Russian government.

Berlin was also pleased; a month later, the Imperial Treasury Office sanctioned two million Reichsmarks “for the support of revolutionary propaganda in Russia”.

Heljfand is also politically active; his “business” was difficult to separate from his political goals, thus he deals in everything and anything, including metals, weapons, cognac, caviar, and fabric.

Due to the battle obstructing the road east, smuggling took place in the north, between Finland, a Russian Empire duchy at the time, and Sweden. The border patrol agents were paid off and refused to allow any inspections.

If he was “conveying greetings from Olga” at the border, the revolutionaries in Russia were handed weaponry, dynamite, and propaganda materials.

These “German gifts” sank ships in Arkhangelsk and set the harbour on fire. Count Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau, the German envoy in Copenhagen, directed “Parvus'” actions. He did not hesitate to aid the communists because doing so would weaken the military alliance battling Germany.

“Now we will pay for the revolution in Germany”

On November 7, 1917, a day that will be remembered as the October Revolution, Heljfand’s plan reaches its pinnacle.

After the civilian government is deposed, the Soviet Union seizes power, and a few weeks later, Russia declares its decision to abandon the Entente, a military alliance that comprised the British Crown and France.

For Russia, the war had effectively ended. The revolution in Russia headed by German Emperor Wilhelm II cost almost half a billion dollars today.

For a time, Lenin was also attacked since he received financing and support from both war opponents and capitalists.

Although he never denied it, he did say, “I would add that now with Russian money, we will bring about a similar revolution in Germany,” before a party meeting.

However, the revolution was not successful.

Russia is led by communists.

Communists – Lenin’s Bolsheviks took control and overthrew Alexander Kerensky’s interim government.

“The time for the people to take control has arrived.”

Because of their engagement in the war, poverty, and the Provisional Government’s poor performance, the Bolsheviks took advantage of the populace’s and army’s displeasure.

In 1903, the Bolsheviks split from the Mensheviks to form a more radical section inside the Russian Social Democratic Workers’ Party.

They believed in Karl Marx’s theories and predicted that the working class would finally overcome the capitalists’ economic and political dominance.

The Bolsheviks believed that a truly socialist society based on equality could only be formed if this was accomplished.

They were commanded by Lenin, who, following the February Revolution of 1917, returned to Russia in an armoured German train after a long exile.

He intended for the Bolsheviks to capture control in Petrograd and then replicate the scheme in other locations.

Lenin persuaded the Bolsheviks with his personality and energy, but he required Soviet support to succeed.

Soviets were workers’ councils formed in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution of 1905, bringing together a diverse range of left-wing political parties, including anarchists and communists.

They were transformed into organised social and state units by the Bolshevik regime.

In his book April Theses, Lenin set out the goals of the Bolshevik revolutionary revolution.

He promised “land, bread, and peace” to the people under the slogan “all power to the Soviets.”

To win over the urban populace, he claimed that the Bolsheviks could address the issue of food shortages in cities; yet, this argument was irrelevant to the peasantry, who made up the vast majority of the population.

He secured the peasants’ neutrality by handing them land, and he fulfilled the majority of Russians’ expectations for the war’s end by promising to make peace with Germany.

Red November

Lenin returned to Petrograd, determined to seize power shortly.

The Provisional Government had scheduled elections for November, and he was convinced that the Bolsheviks would do poorly.

Trotsky took over the organisation of the Bolshevik coup, while the Military Revolutionary Committee gathered backing from the Petrograd garrison and Kronstadt sailors.

On November 6, Prime Minister Kerensky attempted to limit Bolshevik power by ordering the arrest of its leaders.

Nonetheless, the Military Revolutionary Committee responded.

The Red Guard and Kronstadt sailors occupied critical positions around the city.

On November 7th, they headed to the Provisional Government in the Winter Palace in response to a shot from the cruiser Aurora.

A few officer cadets, Cossacks, and the “female death battalion” were left to defend the castle, but only a handful were willing to fight.

Most armed forces remained in their barracks, doing nothing to prevent the Bolshevik seizure.

Kerensky departed the Winter Palace to seek assistance.

He escaped from Petrograd dressed as a woman to Moscow, where he took the train to Murmansk using documents and a passport provided by a Serbian officer, where he boarded a ship and travelled to England, thereby ending the saga of the provisional government.

Workers and soldiers surrounded the castle overnight, and on November 8, the Red Guard rushed in and arrested several Provisional Government leaders.

The Bolsheviks took power in Russia.

The Evolution of Environmental Activism: From Conservation to Radicalism

Development of Ecological Groups

The Industrial Revolution signalling the beginning of a cycle of increasingly severe overexploitation and environmental disaster.

It was a period in which the natural environment suffered greatly to meet humankind’s demands, including both natural calamities and human-caused devastation.

The depletion of natural resources, industrial pollution, and the negative consequences of human activity on the environment have all increased in tandem with the growth of the free market, technical breakthroughs, consumer culture, and other supporting aspects.

The growth of capitalism and globalisation had a huge impact on the formation of environmental social movements, particularly in the Global South.

This region, known for its poverty and little influence, bears the burden of such environmental devastation.

At a period when mass consumerism peaks to meet artificial wants, technology dominates, and our connection to nature dwindles, we see natural resource depletion, the extinction of innumerable plant and animal species, and severe climate change. Ignoring these requirements is no longer a choice.

These reasons fuelled the development of different ideas within eco-organizations, driving them towards more radical forms of resistance as traditional, legal measures became inadequate.

Development of the Environmental Movement

The awareness of nature’s inherent value in the United States during the mid-nineteenth century, prompted by the transcendentalists and their romanticism-inspired critique of contemporary civilisation, was an early recognition of ecological problems.

This period saw an increase in the extinction rate of plant and animal species as a direct result of the industrial revolution’s persistent quest of progress, which prompted the birth of the ecological movement in America rather than Europe.

The intellectual revolution of this era instilled in people a strong respect for the wild natural world.

Understanding the past is critical for comprehending our current actions and creating a sustainable future.

The conservation movement emerged in the late 1800s, with the goal of protecting natural regions and raising public awareness of environmental degradation for the benefit of all humanity.

However, the movement encountered a paradox: despite their appointment as nature’s stewards, people continued to abuse it through activities like as mining, poaching, and deforestation.

In response, John Muir created the Sierra Club in 1892 with the goal of protecting California’s Sierra Nevada Mountains. This movement emphasised the inherent value of nature and opposed further exploitation, an attitude that remains prevalent in North American environmentalism.

The 1960s in the United States saw a tremendous shift, as environmental concerns spread beyond tiny groups to garner greater societal attention.

This shift was driven by increased study into human effect on the environment, the emergence of new ecological organisations, and a greater appreciation for the natural world.

Rachel Carson’s key work, “Silent Spring,” was essential in uncovering the harmful consequences of pesticides on both human health and the environment, undermining the dominant narrative of scientific advancement.

As environmental consciousness grew, organisations such as the Wilderness Society and Sierra Club saw tremendous membership growth, fuelled by civil disobedience and student protests.

This decade also saw the emergence of environmental movements such as Friends of the Earth (1969), Greenpeace (1972), and Earth First! (1980), which signalling a turn towards more radical environmental theories and direct-action techniques.

Radical environmentalism and Deep Ecology

As environmental consciousness grew, so did the scope of activism, which ranged from legislative reform initiatives to more radical, direct-action techniques.

The formation of Earth First! in 1980 signalling a dramatic shift towards radical environmentalism, as seen by a readiness to use direct action tactics to halt environmental destruction.

This movement set the framework for the Earth Liberation Front (ELF), which is noted for its more confrontational approach to environmental defence. Founded in the United States in 1977 as the Environmental Life Force, ELF’s early operations were intended to have an immediate impact but were met with resistance due to their radical nature, prompting a temporary disbandment.

The ELF resurfaced in the 1990s with a strategy centred on inflicting economic damage on companies believed to be destructive to the environment, shifting away from educational initiatives and towards more violent tactics.

This move highlights the controversial discussion in environmental circles concerning the effectiveness and ethics of radical activism.

Parallel to these advancements, the philosophy of deep ecology evolved, providing a fundamental theoretical framework for radical environmental thinking.

Deep ecology, first proposed by Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess in 1973, pushes for a fundamental rethinking of humanity’s relationship with nature.

It emphasises self-realization and biocentrism, arguing that all living organisms have intrinsic value independent of their utility to people.

Deep ecology questions the dominant anthropocentric worldview and advocates for a change towards more eco-centric ideals.

This conceptual change proposes a more holistic approach to environmental advocacy, in which nature is protected not only for its own sake, but also for the benefit of humans.

Deep ecology has influenced the goals and tactics of radical environmental movements, who frequently prioritise ecological integrity over human-centered concerns.

Reflecting on the Spectrum of Environmental Activism

The transition from the early days of conservation to the advent of radical environmentalism demonstrates a diverse and dynamic movement with a similar goal: to safeguard our world.

This progression demonstrates the complexities of resolving environmental challenges, which vary from legal reforms and public education to direct action and violent resistance.

As society grapples with the expanding environmental problem, the questions raised by these movements become more relevant.

How do we strike a balance between human civilization’s requirements and the preservation of the environment?

Can radical activity bring about significant change, or does it alienate potential allies?

And, most importantly, what lessons can we learn from the past to help us navigate our future?

Answering these questions reveals that the environmental movement covers a diverse set of beliefs and techniques.

From the Sierra Club’s conservation initiatives to the ELF’s direct activities, each strategy adds to a bigger conversation about our relationship with the Earth.

As we ponder the future of environmental activism, we must recognise the value of diversity and encourage a wide and inclusive effort to protect our world for future generations.

Shadows of Compassion: The Radical Evolution of Animal Rights Activism

In the evolving landscape of animal rights activism, a shadowy line blurs the distinction between fervent advocacy and radical extremism.

As societal concern for animal welfare grows, so too does the intensity of actions taken by certain groups, whose tactics increasingly mirror those traditionally associated with terrorism. These organizations, driven by a profound moral conviction to end animal suffering, sometimes adopt methods that are as controversial as they are eye-opening.

From the strategic sabotage of hunting activities to the audacious liberation of animals from research facilities, their operations are meticulously planned and executed with a zeal that transcends conventional protest.

This radical arm of the animal rights movement, though representing a fraction of activists, commands a disproportionate share of public and media attention, challenging our perceptions of activism and provoking a complex dialogue on the ethics of their methods.

As we delve into the history and evolution of these groups, it becomes apparent that the line between passionate advocacy and extremism is not only fine but also fraught with moral and legal ambiguities.

This article explores the darker underbelly of animal rights activism, where the fight for compassion sometimes takes a turn into the realms of radicalism and terror.

Animal rights activists – The animalistic movement

The emergence of animal welfare in the nineteenth century coincided with other historical social movements, such as the abolition and human rights movements, which both sought for the expansion and alteration of moral viewpoints.

This empathy included considerations for animal welfare.

Animal experiments and vivisection became more widespread during the nineteenth century. led to the formation of the first animal welfare organisations, first in Great Britain and then in North America, with the goals of refuge and public education.

To be clear, vivisection is the technique of performing surgery on a living organism—typically an animal with a central nervous system—for scientific purposes in order to investigate its internal structure.

The most serious issue, vivisection, which was sanctioned by the dominant Cartesian view of animals as non-thinking machines, spawned numerous anti-vivisection organisations that attempted for a long time to prohibit this treatment of animals but failed due to the too strong medical lobby and associated elements.

Beginning with the earliest group, the Band of Mercy, which destroyed property in the nineteenth century, and extending to today’s ALF, animal rights groups use violence against humans more frequently in the United Kingdom than in the United States.

Evolution of Groups and Terrorist Activities

In the United Kingdom in 1963. The Hunt Saboteurs Association was founded in 1972 to sabotage fox hunting, and the Band of Mercy group grew out of it.

Disgruntled HSA members formed the Bando f Mercy with the goal of confronting hunters directly. At first, they would disable their vehicles and leave menacing messages. Later, they would target medical research facilities in addition to arson and mail bombing attempts.

Among the most militant groups, the Animal Rights Militia isn’t afraid to employ violence against humans. In 1982, the gang sent letter bombs to Margaret Thatcher, the British prime minister.

In addition to mail bombs, they burned down automobiles and homes belonging to employees of specific firms. In the United States, they set fire to a warehouse in 1987, causing $100,000 in damages.

In Canada, they falsely claimed to have poisoned Mars chocolate bars, turkey meat in Vancouver, and threatened to kill ten scientists.

They are particularly active in Sweden, as well as the United States and the United Kingdom.

Among the countless incidents against people, we should mention the Justice Department group’s 1999 mailing of razor blades in letters to eighty-seven American scientists examining animals, instructing them to discontinue their research and release the animals from the facility.

Volkert van der Graaf, the founder of Zeeland’s Animal Liberation Front, a radical Dutch organisation, also assassinated a Dutch politician in 2002 who fought for the repeal of the fur farming ban.

Apart from ALF, the two most well-known groups that do not adhere to the principle of nonviolence are ARM and the Justice Department, although there are many more.

ALF – Animal Liberation Front

The Animal Liberation Front was founded in Britain in 1976 with the goal of inspiring increasingly more extreme actions of animal emancipation.

Soon after, the group expanded into the United States. Its first known action took place in Hawaii in 1977, when two dolphins from the University of Hawaii were released.

It’s crucial to proceed with caution this year because some believe that ALF didn’t exist in the United States until 1979, when two dogs and a cat were freed from a New York medical facility.

Following that, they confessed guilt for twelve direct cases up to 1990, including the 1987 arson of the University of California veterinary laboratory, which caused $4.5 million in damage. Rod Coronado, a movement veteran, was sentenced to three and a half years in prison for blowing the University of Michigan laboratory in 1992.

The group’s actions attract unwanted media attention due of the enormous property damage they do, particularly in larger cities.

The basic goal of ALF is to make the best use of resources (money and time) by removing animals from the status of property and putting an end to institutional animal exploitation based on the assumption that animals are property.

Their offences range from minor vandalism, such as spray-painting words on posters, to more serious criminal activities, such as destroying laboratory equipment and releasing animals, all because they believe that direct action is vital.

Their principal targets include hospitals, particularly those that do animal experiments, as well as other businesses and animal farms.

Their attacks are painstakingly planned and carried out, with extensive monitoring of the potential victim—often through friendship or employment—in order to get familiar with insurance procedures and gather evidence of animal maltreatment

Typically, attacks are videotaped and sent to above-ground organisations such as PETA, which offers financial assistance to the movement, and its press office (NAALFPO), which distributes them online.

Their website provides tips on how to avoid leaving fingerprints, fibres, or electronic traces while contacting the organisation. Like other radical groups, they work in small, anonymous cells to reduce the possibility of arrest or police officers entering the group.

Foundational Ideas of ALF:

  • Remove abused animals from industrial farms, fur farms, research facilities, and other settings and place them in loving homes where they can age naturally and without agony.
  • Cause financial losses for persons who profit from the agony and exploitation of animals.
  • To utilise peaceful direct actions, animal liberation, and publicising the tragedies and atrocities committed against animals behind closed doors.
  • Take all necessary steps to avoid harming animals, people, or non-human creatures.
  • Think about all possible outcomes before drawing any generalisations based on specific information given.

ALF’s largest violent attacks:

The University of California released 500 animals in 1985.

  • In 1987, an arson at the University of California’s animal diagnostics department caused $4 million in damage.
  • In 1989, animal escapes and arson caused around $1 million in damage at the Universities of Arizona and Texas.
  • From 1991 to 1993, Rod Coronado led a series of attacks (bombings, arson, and animal releases) on fur farms and medical facilities under the title of “Operation Bite Back.” One similar occurrence occurred at the University of Michigan, resulting in $1.2 million in damage; the total damage from these acts was estimated to be $2 million.
  • In 1996, a fur company in Minnesota committed arson, causing $2 million in damages.
  • The University of Washington Centre for Urban Horticulture suffered damage from a 5.6-million-dollar fire in 2001.
  • In 2003, 10,000 animals were released from a Washington farm.

These incidents account for only a small percentage of their actions, which are extremely difficult to track because they lack an official membership, anyone can be the perpetrator of their acts, and they regularly share responsibility for their actions with the ELF.

The ALF organisation has grown over the years and is currently present in several countries, including the United States, Canada, Denmark, Belgium, Sweden, Russia, Spain, Norway, Italy, and the Netherlands.

In the meantime, Scotland Yard and the FBI have labelled the ALF as a terrorist organisation.

PETA – People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) should be distinguished from the apparently moderate or less radical movements.

PETA is an organisation founded in 1980. With offices all around the world and over 700,000 members, it is now a global organisation.

Their efforts, which include global lectures, movies, educational materials, lobbying, and protests, are primarily intended at educating the public and capturing media attention.

Along with serving as media support for the ALF and most likely funding their illegal criminal activities, they also provide spiritual and financial support to incarcerated radical activists.

Among the hypotheses are some who argue that ALF and PETA are not separate organisations but were founded to protect PETA from the authorities.

Though it is sometimes claimed that extreme environmental and animal rights organisations coordinate, their beliefs and ways of thinking differ.

Animalists usually position themselves as champions of the species closest to humans, but radical ecologists advocate a more holistic approach that considers all creatures to be equally valuable.

In reality, they promote man’s dominion over the natural environment and frequently cause harm by releasing animals from captivity, disrupting the habitat’s delicate balance and spreading various diseases.

Only a percentage of the animalist movement’s goals have been accomplished thus far.

A rule enacted in Great Britain in 1986 prohibits the use of animals in experiments if their suffering surpasses any potential benefit, as well as the practice of traditional dog fox hunting.

Such trials must be approved by Australia’s Animal Ethics Committee and require anaesthesia.

In contrast, Sweden has rigors laws that need a detailed cost-benefit analysis.

Other countries have also passed legislation aimed at protecting animals and alleviating their suffering. It is worth noting that many industrialised countries have stricter rules than the United States regarding the use of animals in research.

The most pressing concern for animal activists is scientific research on living beings.

While they have made significant progress in recent years in reducing this type of animal mistreatment, their work will continue as long as any animal is used for these types of testing.

The most common companies that use these tests are genetic engineering enterprises, the medical and cosmetics industries, and the military, all of which are prominent targets for animal rights activists.

Do you ever worry if the lotions you use have been tested on animals? Or what type of research is being undertaken in medicine?

Is it all justified?!

“Living a Lie: How Patrice Runner Played the Hero While Swindling $175 Million from the Unsuspecting”

In a world increasingly saturated with promises of quick fixes and miraculous remedies, a dark underbelly thrives. It’s a world where characters like Patrice Runner, posing as helpers and heroes, prey on the most defenceless.

These con artists, who specialize in manipulation and deception, target the elderly, the timid, and those in desperate situations. They promise prosperity, health, and happiness but provide only illusions, plunging their victims into financial and emotional disaster.

This article digs into the terrifying story of Patrice Runner, a so-called psychic who masterminded one of the most heinous frauds of the last two decades, defrauding over $175 million from those least able to bear the loss.

As we uncover his deceptive tactics and the catastrophic effects on his victims, we get insight into a burning question: how do these modern-day villains credibly depict themselves as beacons of hope while orchestrating such profound betrayal?

“Maybe it’s not moral, maybe it’s bulls—t,” said Patrice Runner. “But it doesn’t mean it’s fraud.”

“Did ‘psychic’ Maria Duval make a deal with the devil?”

I had a question for you:

    1. Do you believe in astrology?
    2. Are you a horoscope reader?
    3. Do you believe psychics exist?
    4. Do you believe that if you really want something, you can only have it?

Let me tell you something first: those of you who believe you can, you are not alone.

Everyone in life seeks a quick fix when confronted with difficult or dreary circumstances, when they are struggling in their relationships or employment, when they want more money or happiness, etc.

Nonetheless, nothing in life is really that simple.

This is the story of Maria Duval and Patric Runner, the world’s most notorious con artist.

You couldn’t have missed news like this if you’ve been following the media recently:

“Canadian con artist sentenced to 10 years for $175M psychic mail fraud in U.S.”

‘Psychic’ conman jailed for swindling 1.3m Americans“

„Conman Patrice Runner, 57, is jailed for 10 years after swindling more than $175million from vulnerable victims claiming he was a psychic and promising them wealth and happiness if they sent him cash in the mail during two-decade scam.“

But first, we’ll go in order and biggest question of all:

Who is Maria Duvall?

In 1977, the spouse of a nearby dentist disappeared from Saint Tropez, a city on the French Riviera. Helicopters, police, and groups of people all searched the coast, but in vain.

After hearing about the case in the press, Maria Duvall, an amateur psychic at the time, offered to help. She asked for a recent photo of the missing woman, a map of the area, and her birth date.

After superimposing the image on the map, she let the pendulum swing back and forth until it passed over a specific location.

When the region was searched, the missing woman was found exactly where Duval predicted.

Mary’s reputation profited from this story both in Europe and overseas.

From Italy to Brazil, tabloids raved about her clairvoyant abilities, assisting in the search for up to nineteen missing people, forecasting election results, and profiting handsomely from her stock market predictions.

Rumour had it that companies and politicians were waiting in line to learn more about their fate.

According to rumours, she also found the misplaced dog of French actress Brigitte Bardot.

However, the actress’s assistants rejected the story’s truth, which was never verified.

But, as it turned out, Maria benefited from all these stories—both good and negative.

There were no social media platforms back then, and news was spread through newspaper ads.

Who is Patrice Runner?!

Particle Runner was about eleven years old while he was on the other side of the ocean in the late 1970s.

When he moved with his mother, he was exposed to the family’s financial problems.

His father had moved out a few years ago and was paying alimony on a regular basis. Looking at his mother at the time, Runner’s only desire was to “get rich” and avoid suffering as much as she did.

When Runner was a young man, he was lured in by a variety of advertisements in newspapers and magazines.

He was captivated to advertising at the time due of its emotional intensity, limited word choice, and simple language.

A few advertisements showcased brand-new watches and other equipment, while others sold services or guidelines for improving memory, decreasing weight, and increasing reading speed.

Others sold promises of tremendous wealth or a bright future, which were less material but still quite appealing.

Runner was particularly intrigued to the headline, “Most people are too busy making a living to make any money.”

At the age of 19, Runner spent $80 to start his first mail order business, selling how-to books and weight loss booklets on a variety of topics.

Runner was captivated by the power of intriguing copywriting, which enabled him to parlay his youthful curiosity into a multimillion-dollar business and profession.

At the age of nineteen, Runner launched his first mail-order business, selling weight loss booklets and how-to books on a variety of topics for $80.

He had dropped out of the University of Ottawa to study copywriting a few years before and started his own mail-order business in Montreal, selling sunglasses and cameras.

Runner and Duvall Co

Runner claimed to have first heard of Maria Duvall in the early 1990s. In June 1994, Runner, who also holds French citizenship, travelled to Europe with his then-girlfriend with the intention of seeing Duvall and completing a North American license agreement.

He claims to have found her number on the white pages of a phone booth.

Duval welcomed the pair to her property in the tranquil village of Calas, which made her happy.

Runner’s then-girlfriend recalls that during their psychic reading, Duvall divulged details about the couple’s life that the woman could not have known, such as the knowledge that Runner had lost her father when she was six years old.

Runner maintains that by the end of the year, he and Duvall had negotiated an agreement permitting him to utilize her image in direct mail ads throughout North America.

He ran print advertisements for her psychic skills across the United States and Canada through the company that subsequently became Infogest Direct Marketing.

He claimed to have paid Duvall royalties totaling several hundred thousand dollars each year, or approximately 5% of sales. When he was able to create the letter on his own, the money started to come in.

The firm began – Infogest Direct Marketing

Runner used to say, “You can get someone’s attention by writing, and eventually, after a few minutes, the person sends a check, to get a product, to an address, from a company they’ve never heard of.”

He benefited from the 1990s spike in popularity and widespread commercialization of psychic services in North America.

There were TV shows, print media reports, and commercials.

However, Maria Duvall’s letters were a crucial predecessor of what evolved into a psychic services industry worth more than two billion dollars, primarily in the United States.

The runner’s efforts took off.

Infogest Direct Marketing began sending letters to people’s mailboxes alongside advertisements, blending Runner’s original writing with material modified from colleagues in Europe.

They all had the same format: typewritten letters or handwritten photocopies apparently written by Maria Duvall, demanding cash for lottery numbers, astrological readings, or fortune-telling.

Certain letters urged recipients to purchase alleged magical things, while others asked them to send personal documents or objects (such as family photos, fingerprints, or hair strands) in green envelopes, promising that the psychic would use them for unique rituals.

“Once this envelope is sealed, ONLY I can open it,” read one letter with Duvall’s photocopied signature on it.

Respondents occasionally received items or crystals in the mail. Sometimes they obtained lottery or fate numbers.

However, they began to receive fresh letters asking more money, numbering over a hundred in a few of months. From 1994 to 2014, about 1.5 million clients in the United States and Canada contributed more than $175 million to Runner’s business.

“If you have a special bottle of bubbly you’ve been saving to celebrate the great news, now is the time to open it,” said one nine-page letter his company sent to thousands of clients. The message promised “tremendous changes and improvements in your life” in “exactly 27 days”.

Recipients were encouraged to RSVP and send a $50 check or money order in exchange for a “mysterious talisman with the power to attract luck and money,” as well as a “Guide to My New Life” containing winning lottery numbers.

Many of people who responded to Maria Duvall’s advertisements and letters in North America and Europe shared a common profile: they were mostly older and, at times, financially disadvantaged.

They believed in astrology, psychics, and fortune telling, and their goals included change, salvation, and money.

Among the stories are:

In December 1998, a seventeen-year-old girl named Claire Ellis drowned in an English river. A note from Maria Duval was found in her pocket.

Ellis’ mother told the newspaper that in the weeks leading up to her murder, her daughter corresponded with Duvall, from whom she also purchased charms and pendants.

Her mother noted that Ellis’ behavior had become unpredictable, which she blamed to her daughter’s interaction with Duvall. “These things just shouldn’t be allowed,” the mother told journalists. “We received letters from this woman months after Claire died”.

By the early 2000s, many people around the world were talking about how they felt tricked by Duvall’s letter. Social media users formed several groups to debate this problem.

Fraud Complaints

In October 2004, Windsor, Ontario police issued a notification stating that “mail fraud complaints operated by ‘Maria Duvall’ have been received by numerous Canadian law enforcement agencies.”

Over the years, investigative journalists and law enforcement agencies from around the world have attempted to locate Duvall. There were allegations that she was a fraud, a parody designed to trick people.

Runner and his family traveled throughout that time, living in France, Switzerland, Spain, New Zealand, and other locations.

Thousands of consumers continued to receive letters and pay for services despite the fact that Operation Duvall was being covered by the media and multiple law enforcement groups.

The runner letter business was most profitable between 2005 and 2010, with a single-year total of $23 million (U.S.). Runner went on to achieve the financial success he had long sought years before.

A US civil investigation of the company’s Duval letter business began in 2014. The US Department of Justice has sent a notification of the lawsuit.

According to court documents, a US Postal Inspector discovered in 2014 that personal letters, hair lengths, palm prints, family photos, and unopened green envelopes addressed to Duval were delivered to a receiving facility in New York and disposed of in dumpsters.

The US authorities assumed that Runner’s constant moves were both an attempt to avoid detection and a way to transfer money from his most lucrative business: the Maria Duvall letters.

Arrests and Accusations

By the end of 2018, the US federal government had confirmed the case against him and charged him with 18 felonies.

Two years later, in December 2020, following extradition negotiations, Runner was handcuffed in Ibiza and taken from Madrid to New York to a Brooklyn prison.

The indictment covers numerous allegations:

For nearly two decades, Infogest Direct Marketing ran a direct mail operation targeting fraud victims who were “elderly and vulnerable”;

Runner was the company’s president, in charge of personnel who handled day-to-day operations, such as tracking mail and accepting payments.

Runner and his associates used shell businesses all around the world, including one named the Destiny Research Center, as well as private PO boxes in several US states.

Letters from mail receivers are routed to a “cage service,” an agency that accepts and administers return mail and payments for direct mail marketers, from these mailboxes.

Runner’s company used a cage service in New York, where employees removed money and processed incoming mail. The funds were subsequently transferred to accounts in banks around the world, including Liechtenstein and Switzerland, controlled by Runer and his colleagues.


The trial of United States v. Patrice Runer began on June 5, 2023, in the District Court for the Eastern District of New York, Central Islip.

“The details of his scheme may be complicated, but the fraud itself is very simple,” the prosecution told the jury. “The basic fraud is the use of a psychic character to lure people in with lies and take their money.” . . .

The prosecution went on to list Runner’s multiple attempts to disassociate himself from the business, including as deleting his name from company documents, founding offshore firms, and telling subordinates to shred documents showing his own handwriting.

The prosecution presented evidence that the letters were mass-printed, as were the alleged spiritual trinkets, which had the “Made in China” labels removed.

However, Runner’s defense argued that psychic services are inherently deceptive and hence cannot be called fraudulent.

Runner’s attorney told the jury that the government had presented no evidence that Runner meant to defraud or harm his customers.

It turned out that Runner was simply running a business that “promised the experience of astrological products and services.”

After nearly a week of deliberation, the jury convicted Patrice Runer of eight counts of mail fraud, four of wire fraud, conspiracy to commit mail and wire fraud, and conspiracy to commit money laundering.

He was found not guilty of four counts of mail fraud.

A federal jury convicted Patrice Runner, a Canadian and French citizen, of conspiracy to commit mail and wire fraud, conspiracy to commit money laundering, and multiple counts of mail and wire fraud.

He was sentenced to ten years in jail in the Eastern District of New York for orchestrating a huge psychic mass-mailing fraud scheme that stole more than $175 million from over 1.3 million victims in the United States.

In the end, he would say that fraud is always fraud.

I have a question for all of you: Do we need to pay magicians to experience magic?

Are we paying money on magic cards that can forecast our desired and expected outcomes?

And, just as Patrice Runner had fantasized of living the life of a rock star as a youngster and adult, he said, “I used to live like a rock star”?

Echoes of Eco-War: Navigating the Storm of Radical Environmentalism

Amidst the rapid rise of industry and worsening environmental damage, the second half of the 20th century saw the emergence of a strong protest the continuous exploitation of the Earth.

This uproar solidified into a movement that has since crossed the delicate boundary between activism and what has been controversially referred to as eco-terrorism.

With the increasing awareness of environmental issues, the advocacy groups for the protection of the Earth became more radical, resulting in a multifaceted discussion on the need, morality, and consequences of their actions.

The Origin of Radical Environmentalism

The 1960s were a significant period for the development of environmental awareness, leading to social movements that sought to stop the harmful impact of human activities on the natural world.

Originally based on nonviolent demonstrations and legal activism, these movements progressively adopted more assertive tactics aimed at directly challenging and limiting environmental plunder.

The implementation of these measures faced opposition from governments, corporations, and anti-environmentalist groups, who portrayed environmental activism as a kind of radical extremism.

The Vanguard of Eco-Radicalism: Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and Earth Liberation Front (ELF)

The Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and the Earth Liberation Front (ELF) are two of the most notable radical groups in the eco-radical movement.

They have gained attention through a series of high-profile acts. In 2005, the FBI identified these groups as the primary domestic terrorism threat.

Their activities have ignited a heated discussion regarding the nature of their actions and the validity of their cause.

An In-Depth Examination of Eco-Actions

The Animal Liberation Front (ALF), established in the 1970s, has played a crucial role in planning and carrying out operations to free animals from what they regard as acts of cruelty and exploitation in laboratories and farms.

The ELF, which emerged in the 1990s, focuses on buildings, corporations, and facilities that it considers environmentally harmful. It uses fire and sabotage to interrupt operations and attract attention to its cause.

Is the “Green Scare” an instance of fearmongering or a legitimate concern?

The term “Green Scare” is a comparison to the “Red Scare” during the Cold War, implying a government-driven effort to create fear, stigmatise, and repress environmental campaigners through monitoring and laws.

This technique purportedly seeks to marginalise extremist environmentalists and their ideology, portraying them as a menace to the security of the nation and the well-being of the population.

Critics contend that this has enabled the gradual decline of fundamental rights and freedoms under the pretence of countering terrorism.

International viewpoints on eco-radicalism

The global perspective and categorisation of radical environmental groups exhibit substantial variation.

Contrary to the United States, European nations and Australia take a more sophisticated approach and refrain from using the phrase eco-terrorism.

European countries such as Germany and the Netherlands place less emphasis on categorising environmental advocacy as radicalism.

The Dutch have transitioned their language from referring to “animal rights activism” to using the term “animal rights extremism”, while avoiding the label of terrorism.

The United Kingdom avoids using the phrase “eco-terrorism” and instead categorises such actions as domestic extremism.

Australia and other regions are now examining the notion of “single-issue” terrorism, acknowledging the distinct motivations and tactics of environmental activists without conducting significant research or categorising them as terrorists.

The Prospects of Ecological Extremism

Despite controversy and resistance, the course of radical environmental organisations indicates a lack of decrease in their actions.

Conversely, as global environmental concerns become more severe, these groups are increasingly determined to broaden their objectives and strategies.

Over the past two decades, there has been an expansion in the range of their objectives, indicating a consistent, and possibly increasing, resolve to address environmental exploitation.

Understanding the Green Divide

The distinction between environmental activism and eco-terrorism becomes indistinct due to differing perspectives, ideologies, and methodologies.

The ALF and ELF, considered radical groups, saw their operations as essential interventions to address uncontrolled environmental deterioration.

However, their categorisation as terrorists highlights the wider societal and governmental dilemma of reconciling security priorities with the right to engage in peaceful protest.

Given the escalating environmental dangers that the globe is confronting, the discussion surrounding eco-radicalism encourages a thorough evaluation of the methods employed by civilisation to safeguard its natural legacy.

The trajectory of radical environmentalism, characterised by contentiousness and discord, highlights the intricate connection between mankind and its environment and the extent to which individuals are prepared to protect it.

Everything is contingent upon public opinion

“Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth.”

– Marcus Aurelius

Effectiveness is determined by the capacity of a psychological weapon to successfully influence the public opinion that it ultimately shapes and motivates.

Public opinion, which governs both politics and the outer world, is the outcome of democracy.

Public opinion serves as the foundation for political decision-making in democratic nations.

However, totalitarian regimes employ violent means to incite and mould public sentiment. New public opinions are formed and promptly enforced under a dictatorship.

State governments have historically been influenced by public sentiment.

As Seneca had previously stated, “Public opinion determines everything.”

False propaganda

Propaganda represents the most extensively employed tool in the realm of public opinion manipulation.

Psychological warfare is the deliberate use of propaganda to undermine an adversary, often supported by military, economic, or political resources as needed.

In broad terms, the objective of such propaganda is to undermine the adversary’s determination to engage in combat or opposition, and on rare occasions, to win his allegiance to one’s cause.

An additional function of propaganda is to strengthen the resolve of resistance combatants or allies.

Psychological warfare encompasses techniques such as brainwashing, which are employed to manipulate the personalities and convictions of captives of war.

As I have previously demonstrated, psychological warfare is not a novel concept; rather, it has a lengthy history.

In contrast, contemporary scientific advancements in communications, including high-speed printing and radio, along with substantial progress in public opinion analysis and the forecasting of mass behaviour, have transformed psychological warfare into a more systematic and prevalent tactic in both strategy and tactics, as well as a more substantial component of warfare.

In the majority of contemporary armies, specialised personnel are stationed and authorised to engage in psychological warfare.

These units comprised a substantial proportion of the American military forces deployed during the Korean and Vietnam Wars, in addition to the German and Allied armies throughout World War II.

To counteract a guerrilla insurrection in Malaya during the early 1950s, British and Malayan government forces airdropped leaflets containing offers of protection to those who surrendered.

Depicted by Marxist theorists and practitioners, revolutionary guerrilla warfare, including Mao Zedong during the Chinese Civil War, Ho Chi Minh and his successors in Vietnam, Fidel Castro, Ernesto “Che” Guevara, and their adherents in Latin America, psychological warfare was considered an indispensable element of military strategies, inseparable from conventional operations.

In contrast to its conventional role as a supplementary and secondary concern within mainstream Western military systems, there is a growing demand to consider psychological warfare an essential component of warfare.

Audience information and propaganda analysis are customarily components of professional psychological warfare operations.

An examination of the overall flow of mass communications through the target audience, as well as the nature and effectiveness of one’s own and competing propaganda, constitute propaganda analysis. Audience information provides specifics regarding the intended recipients of propaganda.

Propaganda by War

War propaganda is an exceptional form of special warfare that potentially exerts a more profound psychological influence than any other.

Having served for five years in the military, I can attest to the influence of propaganda.

Propaganda is a structured endeavour involving the distribution of beliefs, facts, and concepts that are scientific, political, religious, ideological, or otherwise.

In psychological parlance, it is the dissemination of information with the intention of generating predispositions towards a particular way of behaving; propaganda messages and information influence the actions of individuals.

Methods of influencing public opinion towards a particular objective are the focus of propaganda.

Although the message itself holds paramount significance in propaganda, it is equally imperative to contemplate the source, the characteristics of the message, the attributes of the recipient, and the mode of transmission employed to convey propaganda messages.

Prior to implementing war propaganda, those responsible must ascertain the intended audience and the objectives it aims to accomplish.

They must then conduct research on the target audience, paying special attention to the group’s vulnerabilities to address its greatest concerns, fears, and frustrations, in addition to any cultural nuances or sensitivities.

Based on these findings, a concept of propaganda aimed at that demographic is formulated, which comprises the optimal presentation time and location, the most effective message, the most effective transmission method, and the origins of the message.

Based on current events in the military and politics, individuals who exhibit traits such as extreme complacency, authoritarianism, emotional instability, aggression, rigidity, and intellectual, social, and emotional immaturity are most susceptible to manipulation.

Nonetheless, it is equally imperative to exploit the parallels between them and discern the underlying motivations that propel their present conduct, be it apprehension regarding malnutrition or acquisitive prosperity.

Because people are more likely to believe a message originating from a trustworthy source, the origin of the communication is also critical.

Simply imposing your will on individuals whose views are most comparable to your own is, without a doubt, the simplest course of action.

The propaganda message should possess qualities of comprehensibility, allure, captivation, and influence.

It is necessary for the intended recipient to recognise the message, understand it, acquiesce to it, retain it, and not disregard it before providing a response.

Alternatively stated, the message must influence behaviour.

The intensity, uniqueness, incompleteness, and mobility of the communication all capture the attention of the recipient.

Additionally, the message should be reiterated, competing ideas should be eliminated, simplification should be achieved, as many promises should be made as possible, and prevalent attitudes should be supported rather than the original source of the message.

In addition, with the strongest justifications conceivable, the purpose and entire content of the message must be concealed for as long as possible.

Words must perform miracles even when people are going insane and the circumstances are dire.

Propaganda via the press

Email, radio, television, and rumours are among the various media platforms utilised in propaganda.

The following transmission transmitters are the most widely used:

  1. Radio broadcasts: The quickest transmission of information occurs via radio.
  2. TV series and films: The visual-emotional impact of television makes it a potent medium.
  3. Written communications, including press caricatures, flyers, posters, and graffiti;
  4. Propaganda teams, comprised of premeditated collectives of individuals who exert personal influence over the opinions and perspectives of others;
  5. Effective psychological and promotional strategies;
  6. Rumours are a perilous instrument that is commonly utilised in military propaganda.
  7. Depending on the circumstances and demands, additional strategies are often implemented, including obtaining confessions from prisoners or beingg the surrender of soldiers’ families or children.

Propaganda Today

Mass media function as a conduit through which information and messages are transmitted, amusing, and informing the public.

Additionally, it informs individuals of the values and standards that establish their position in society.

Therefore, propaganda exacerbates animosity among different social classes.

Amidst the pervasive influence of media in contemporary society, the mass media functions as the principal conduit and platform through which progressive goals are disseminated and propaganda is executed.

Contemporary media platforms, such as movie posters, radio, television, mobile handsets, and posters, can now be utilised to disseminate propaganda to specific populations.

Social media platforms have evolved into potent propaganda tools because of their widespread adoption. A multitude of countries employ social media platforms to effectively disseminate propaganda.

The Economist reports that the number of “organised disinformation campaigns” increased from 27 in 2017 to 81 in 2020.

Another reason why social media is useful for disseminating propaganda is that it enables users to filter content to retain the information they desire while removing that which they do not wish to see and to reach a large audience with minimal effort.

By disseminating “junk” news, ordinary citizens, government agencies, and politicians can all leverage the platform’s user-friendliness to advance their causes.

Politically motivated individuals and organisations continue to employ bots extensively to facilitate communication.

It is pertinent to enquire:

What insights can be gleaned from this behaviour regarding broader societal norms and beliefs?

Moreover, from computational propaganda, what can we discern regarding the contemporary political communication culture?

The objective of Military Leadership Psychology is Victory

Throughout history, leadership has held significant importance in the military. Therefore, it is critical to comprehend military psychology, which is exclusively focused on achieving victory.

Military psychology is strategically structured to ensure victory through optimising performance, resilience, and mental health of service members.

By enhancing training, fostering resilience, and addressing mental health needs, it aims to bolster readiness and effectiveness.

Additionally, it analyses enemy behaviour, supports leadership, and contributes to psychological operations to gain strategic advantage.

In essence, military psychology’s multifaceted approach is geared towards maximising psychological readiness and operational success in the complex and demanding environments of modern warfare

Leaders, Leadership and Victory

A leader is tasked with motivating and reassuring soldiers of the value of the causes they are tasked with defending, as well as furnishing them with the necessary psychological and tactical fortitude to achieve victory in combat.

Political, social, and cultural connections have been leveraged to establish the psychological structure required for military leadership ever since the ancient Greek era.

Despite the emergence of psychology as a recognised scientific discipline in the late nineteenth century, the psychological dimension of warfare continued to be vital.

Military science is founded upon the principles of strategy, tactics, and operations.

Military psychology can be readily incorporated into the broader parent sciences, specifically their applied branches, which encompass topics that extend beyond processes directly related to conflict.

The post–World War II era witnessed the emergence of a greater number of terms than the Iraq War in 1991.

These terms exhibit resemblances to the term “psychological war” or possess semantic components associated with psychological warfare.

Technological, economic, and political developments that gained momentum concurrently with the institutionalisation of psychology would increase its role in recruiting, educating, and preparing soldiers for military service and combat as the twentieth century progressed.

The terms emerged from the discernment of military analysts, who considered contemporary geopolitical events and trends, the rapid advancements in technology and the military sector, and the determination to discontinue the exclusive reliance on nuclear weapons to establish dominance.

I will define the following terms for you:

1. In its broadest definition, “special war”:

Is an alternative term for psychological warfare. Mostly utilised by Eastern Bloc countries. Evidently, Russia considers the conflict with Ukraine to be a Special Operation, given the current context.

2. Low-intensity conflict;

Refers to activities in which complete dominion over the political, economic, and social dynamics of a country is pursued by employing various clandestine methods, while abstaining from the utilisation of physical aggression.

3. Operations:

That employ deceitful methods to counterbalance the advantages of the more powerful side are referred to as asymmetric threats. Their fundamental tactic is to prolong contact with the enemy and deplete his resources; ideology triumphs over technology at all times.

As a result, their objective is not territorial conquest or sovereignty threats; rather, it is to undermine adversaries’ resolve and capability to employ superior conventional military capabilities and to intervene effectively in protracted regional conflicts.

4. Public diplomacy:

During periods of peace, the term “public diplomacy” is employed to denote the concept of psychological warfare, which is different in practice during times of conflict.

Public diplomacy, an emerging concept in the field of international relations, operates under the premise that the application of “soft powers” may yield greater results than resorting to force or engaging in conflict.

Public diplomacy pertains to the conduct of an independent nation with regard to the citizens of other countries, with the intention of influencing their perspectives and gaining support for its own national goals or interests on the international stage.

By means of expert exchanges, public relations firms, the media, non-governmental organisations, and public opinion research agencies, this can be accomplished with the ultimate objective of “convincing” other nations to take actions and make decisions that are detrimental to their own interests.

5. Hybrid warfare:

The objective of this form of conflict is to modify the regime, political system, and/or state order of the targeted nations.

Various stakeholders, including media outlets, humanitarian organisations, religious groups, peacemakers, and mediators, are engaged in such conflicts.

The term “hybrid warfare” delineates the subsequent components as fundamental components:

  • The utilisation of both conventional and unconventional methods of warfare;
  • Both overt and covert forms of security threats
  • A wide range of manifestations
  • Intenseness, spontaneity, adaptability, obscurity, ambiguity, or concealment of the source and instigator of the incident
  • Cyber attacks
  • Economic sanctions, blockades, and boycotts
  • Denial of involvement in the events
  • Subversive weaponry
  • Absence of action when the perpetrators are concealed among the civilian population

6. The term “unlimited war”

Denotes the Chinese perspective on modern warfare.

The forms of interminable warfare include nuclear, diplomatic, financial, commercial, biochemical, intelligence, resource, ecological, space, regulation-based, electronic, smuggling, and sanction-based conflicts.

Additionally, humanitarian, and ecological conflicts are included in this category.

The governing principles of strategizing and executing unlimited warfare are comprehensiveness, compliance, limited objectives, unlimited measures (any procedures and measures may be selected to achieve the specified goals), asymmetry, minimal consumption, multidimensional coordination, adjustment, and control.

7. The use of cyber space:

Information, and information resources to wage international conflicts constitutes cyberwar. It manifests itself partially or entirely through the medium of the Internet or cyber space.

Cyber space encompasses an assortment of electronic media that produce, transfer, interchange, or store data that is subject to scrutiny by the media or specialists, whether in a public or private capacity.

Participants in cyberspace-based communication may also obstruct, eliminate, or otherwise modify information that is broadcast there.

Cyber space extends beyond the confines of the Internet to incorporate non-integrated information networks as well.

It occurs near cybercrime and espionage, from which it differs primarily in the objective pursued by the assailant, rather than in the instruments, techniques, or tactics employed.

The absence of international legal regulations and a universally accepted definition of cybe rwarfare is notable.

In this context, it is also possible to address several additional cyber threats: clandestine or overt information operations designed to sway public opinion for political gain; opposition protests instigated and disseminated; and unofficial social group organisation with the intention of overthrowing established governments or subverting the state and social order.

Psychological Warfare and Doctrine in 21st Century

In the intricate landscape of modern conflict, battles are not solely waged on physical battlegrounds. Enter the realm of psychological warfare – a covert arena where minds are the primary target, and manipulation is the weapon of choice. Psychological warfare, often overlooked but profoundly influential, encompasses a spectrum of tactics aimed at shaping perceptions, beliefs, and behaviours to gain strategic advantage.

From propaganda and misinformation to fear-inducing tactics and cognitive manipulation, its impact extends far beyond the battlefield, permeating societies, politics, and even the digital realm.

In this article, we delve into the depths of psychological warfare, uncovering its nuances, historical significance, and contemporary relevance. As we navigate through the shadows of psychological manipulation, we unveil the importance of understanding these tactics in today’s world, where information is power, and perception is reality.

Join me on a journey to unravel the complexities of psychological warfare and discover its profound implications on individuals, societies, and global affairs.

Is there an individual in the twenty-first century who is unaware of at least one conflict occurring in some location?

Sadly, conflicts continue to have a substantial impact on our past and present.

Almost every nation and country was directly or indirectly involved in a conflict during the 20th Century.

Despite the fact that military conflict constitutes the fundamental component of war, there exist latent forms of conflict including but not limited to political, social-economic, psychological, and ethical disputes.

All of these conflict types intersect and contribute to the universal character of war.

The progression of modern armament and technologies has altered the overall perception of the significance of psychological warfare. However, this also presents prospects for the implementation and development of novel psychological warfare methodologies.

An unprecedented innovation emerged with the advent of social networks, which are notable for their exponential expansion, widespread availability, intuitive interfaces, and diverse formats.

Unavoidably, these developments have an effect on the social structure of nations, the geopolitical environment, the global economy, and the definition and perception of warfare terminology and strategies, in addition to the meaning of the term itself within military psychology.

Throughout my military school and academy education, I was consistently exposed to lessons and instruction that detailed the practical implementation of psychological warfare against the enemy’s military and economic establishment.

The Psychological War Doctrine

The initial rise in prominence of psychological warfare occurred in the East.

Sun Tzu’s The Art of War examines the psychological dimensions of war as a social phenomenon and proposes optimal psychological preparation strategies to achieve victory over the adversary in an ideal conflict.

Psychological warfare, which is conducted through the dissemination of disinformation rather than the use of physical weapons, analysing and bolstering the weaknesses of one’s opponent while concentrating on improving one’s own, avoiding direct conflict whenever possible, employing cunning, utilising spies, and so forth, are examples of such tactics.

When examining the concept of “Psychological War,” one may characterise it as a form of specialised warfare designed to generate psychological effects for the benefit of the individual.

It is a military and political strategy that aims to undermine the adversary’s strength, resistance, and determination to fight, while fortifying one’s own forces and amassing the support of a wide network of allies.

The Cold War, which raged between the United States and the Soviet Union, stands as the most widely recognised example of psychological warfare.

In contrast to armed conflict, psychological warfare can be conducted during times of peace by gradually dismantling societal structures or eroding their defences in preparation for an impending armed assault.

Culture and society

In times of armed conflict, psychological warfare functions in conjunction with military operations to achieve the cessation of hostilities.

Psychological warfare is distinguished by the utilisation of distinctive strategies by paramilitary or military special forces (trained, equipped, and formed for these purposes) to accomplish political, economic, military, or psychological goals during times of peace or conflict.

These objectives may be pursued independently or in conjunction with conventional military force, on one’s own, enemy, neutral, or rebel territory, and may even involve socially and politically sensitive issues.

These strategies may be implemented overtly or clandestinely, which necessitates the authorisation, consent, and oversight of specific power structures.

Consequently, the formidable capabilities of military technology are combined with the immense potential of modern “technology of manipulating people,” or distinctive warfare strategies that achieve the desired psychological effects.

What are the intended mental repercussions?

Initially, the leader of the psychological conflict endeavours to impose his or hers political system, philosophy, and way of thinking.

In order to accomplish this, he encourages the internal adversaries of the attacking system to sow discord, fear, and uncertainty, promote internal strife, and sow distrust and doubt among the defenders in an effort to undermine and demolish the attacked side’s defence.

It is employed in the dissemination of deceit, empty assurances, and illusions.

Due to the fact that conflicts and armies have always existed, psychological warfare also possesses its constituent elements.

Consequently, the objective of psychological warfare is to subjugate and control the actions of the targeted party’s members without their knowledge by manipulating their attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviour.

A variety of psychological warfare techniques and pressures are employed to achieve the objective of imposing a specific value system, reliance, and dominance.

Psychological warfare targets more than just the adversary.
Additionally, they may encompass the following:

  • Domestic subjects (e.g., publicly defending the war)
  • Domestic armed forces (boosting morale during combat)
  • Neutral and allied nations (gaining international support and influence)
  • The inhabitants of temporarily occupied territories (pacification, subjugation, and “re-education” of the populace).

Aspects that define psychological warfare

In contrast to alternative modes of conflict, psychological warfare possesses several notable benefits.

Although collaborative and coordinated endeavours undoubtedly produce optimal outcomes, psychological warfare stands as the most pragmatic approach when it comes to extensive spatial and temporal implementation.

If its effects are recognised and comprehended, psychological warfare enables one to preserve cohesion, coherence, and a unified viewpoint among one’s own people through the direct action of both enemy and internal forces.

This increases the populace’s desire to struggle and resist during both times of peace and conflict.

For those unaware, I participated in direct combat operations during the war in Croatia from 1991 to 1996. One of my responsibilities was state security, and I worked with planners and experts to develop the most effective psychological warfare operation against the enemy as either a member of the team or a security detachment.

One of those operations involved the strategic use of daily newspapers and images portraying “fake” rocket launchers and MLRS launchers in large quantities, with the knowledge that the United Nations force would directly inform our adversary.

While the majority of those high-tech weapons were dummy constructs, the enemy calculated them to be real. It goes without saying that during the initial hours of operation “Flash” in May 1995, the enemy anticipated heavy artillery and rocket barrage due to their belief in the news articles, which proved to be unfounded.

This occurs both on the front lines and in the background, and it is a direct consequence of the adversary employing unanticipated new forces, assets, and resources.

This phenomenon not only leads to monetary, human, and material detriment, but also generates additional attention and ensures ongoing coverage throughout the crisis. envisioned and strategized matters in a “blitzkrieg” fashion.

This is especially evident in instances of annexation and after the conquest of regions inhabited by hostile peoples, as a territory is deemed vanquished solely when its inhabitants submit to the authority of the conqueror.

By utilising insights from the social sciences, psychological warfare strategies enable a systematic, organised, and scientific approach to the general public in an effort to manipulate, control, and oversee their psychological characteristics, states, and behaviours.

This, in conjunction with modern social networks and mass media, enables incredibly rapid and effortless access to psychological warfare.

Presently, there is a reduction in the magnitude of financial, infrastructure, economic, and population losses due to the pervasive and uncomplicated availability of communication tools and the regulation of psychological warfare strategies.

Money would be directly invested in the preservation of these resources should the adversary acquire control of the population and territory while they are still intact, which is an extremely unlikely occurrence.

Combat morale-wise, it is inherently advantageous for the opposing side to have a bewildered enemy soldier as opposed to a deceased one, given that the former inspires dread and retaliation is invariably required for the families of wounded, captured, and deceased soldiers.

Psychological warfare frequently enables the state engaged in hostile activities to evade legal repercussions, reputational damage, and risks associated with certain operations.

Additionally it:

  • Safeguards the invested capital of foreign corporations against destruction—as we all know, capital and money are the foundation of everything
  • Prevents potential harm to individuals and destruction of property
  • Enables a greater level of confidentiality to prevent internal repercussions, such as power loss and public opposition to the government or prominent individuals
  • In addition to external repercussions—including sanctions and other war-related repercussions that have an adverse impact on the nation and its inhabitants.

Financial risks, such as the profitability of the action’s implementation, are also facilitated, along with the sustainability and reputation of domestic businesses operating in the countries where the actions are conducted, and on a global scale.

Others believe that psychological warfare constitutes half the battle gained, whereas some believe that it is considerably less effective than the players would like.

What are your opinions regarding this?

Between Protection and Radicalism: Exploring the Spectrum of Eco-Terrorism

In an era when environmental degradation has become a global crisis, the distinction between defending our planet and resorting to extremes is becoming increasingly blurry.

As eco-conscious people work to oppose the exploitation and destruction of the natural world, a contentious argument arises: where does environmental activism end and eco-terrorism begin?

This enquiry aims to elucidate the complex contrast between environmental protection activities and radical actions labelled as eco-terrorism, offering insight on the reasons, repercussions, and ethical quandaries that surround this difficult issue.

The rise of eco-terrorism: a response to global environmental degradation

The late twentieth century was a watershed point in the environmental movement, with the rise of radical environmentalists and animal rights campaigners. Disillusioned by the perceived ineffectiveness of traditional environmental organisations, these groups took up more aggressive tactics in their fight against global corporations, government regulations, and the overarching capitalist framework that, in their opinion, sanctioned the relentless exploitation of nature.

Historical context and escalation
Eco-terrorism has its beginnings in the early 1980s, when former members of conventional environmental groups such as Greenpeace became frustrated. Dissatisfied with the slow pace of change and the ongoing damage of the environment, many people turned to direct action. Their techniques, which included sabotage and property destruction, were intended to inflict economic damage on entities believed responsible for environmental devastation rather than causing personal injury.

As an example, consider the Persian Gulf oil spill.

One of the most prominent acts of environmental terrorism was the Iraqi army’s deliberate oil pollution of the Persian Gulf, which demonstrated how environmental resources may be used as weapons in battles. This act, together with a boom in violent activities by environmental organisations since the 1990s, brought environmental terrorism to the forefront, sparking a global debate over the validity and ethics of such attacks.

Defining Ecoterrorism

Eco-terrorism, a word that both fascinates and confounds, refers to acts of violence committed under the cover of environmental advocacy.

The FBI defines it as the use or threat of violence by environmental groups for political purposes, frequently targeting symbolic entities. This term, however, sparks disagreement among some who regard eco-terrorism as a valid form of protest polluters and exploiters of the natural world.

The paradox of eco-terrorism
The underlying paradox in eco-terrorism stems from its dual nature: it tries to defend the environment while adopting tactics typically associated with violence and devastation. This duality creates serious concerns about the ethical and moral limitations of activism, prompting the public to reconsider their notion of environmental protection.

The range of targets and tactics
Eco-terrorists target a wide range of targets, including the timber sector, medical facilities, big polluters, and government entities. Their tactics vary, ranging from vandalism and sabotage to more serious activities such as arson and the discharge of hazardous substances, all with the goal of disrupting and drawing attention to environmental issues.

Agroterrorism: A Case In Point
Agroterrorism, which targets the agricultural sector, shows the multifaceted nature of eco-terrorism. The World Health Organisation defines agroterrorism as the purposeful contamination of food supply to cause injury. It emphasises the vulnerability of natural resources and the possibility that these acts would affect civilian populations, blurring the borders between activism and terrorism.

The ideological foundation of eco-terrorism

At its foundation, eco-terrorism is motivated by a deep dissatisfaction with the capitalism system and its environmental consequences.

Radical environmentalists think that strong actions are required to offset nature’s degradation, calling for a re-evaluation of humanity’s connection with the environment.

The Ethics Conundrum
This radical approach to ecology sets up a Pandora’s box of ethical quandaries. While some regard eco-terrorism as a necessary evil in the fight against environmental degradation, others see it as a foolish and dangerous deviation from the norms of nonviolent activism. The argument focuses on the justification of violence for environmental causes, as well as the repercussions of legitimising such actions.

Navigating the Debate- Towards a Balanced Perspective
The debate over eco-terrorism is contentious, reflecting broader social disagreements about environmental policy, corporate responsibility, and the role of activism in influencing change. To negotiate this challenging terrain, a sophisticated knowledge of the motivations driving eco-terrorism, combined with a dedication to constructive discussion, is required.

Balancing Environmental Protection with Ethical Activism
The difficulty is to reconcile the urgent necessity for environmental protection with the ethical imperatives of action. This includes carefully considering the tactics used in the name of ecology, with the goal of striking a balance that respects both the holiness of natural resources and the principles of nonviolence.

The Path Forward

As the globe grapples with an escalating environmental crisis, the phenomena of eco-terrorism prompt us to consider the nature of activism and the extent people would go to safeguard the earth.

To understand and confront the core causes of eco-terrorism, we must also have a broader discussion about environmental justice, corporate accountability, and our common obligation to protect our world for future generations.